Vatican Pinacoteca ★★★

Room XII (17th century), Vatican Pinacoteca, Rome, Italy (Photo by Petar Milošević)
Room XII (17th century)

The Vatican Museum's Pinacoteca is the best painting gallery in all of Rome

One of the top painting galleries in Rome has so many masterpieces they nearly crowd one another out on the walls in room after room of Old Master genius.

I'm serious; in the artistic overload of going from Giotto to Da Vinci to Caravaggio to Raphael, you end up merely skimming over works by Pietro Lorenzetti, Fra' Angelico, Titian, Pinturicchio, and Bellini, any one of which would be the prize of a lesser collection.

Among the major masterpieces are Giotto's Stefaneschi Triptych (1320), a Perugino Madonna and Child with Saints (1496), Leonardo da Vinci's unfinished St. Jerome (1482), Guido Reni's Crucifixion of St. Peter (1605), and ★Caravaggio's Deposition from the Cross (1604).

Paintings by Simone Martini, Benozzo Gozzoli, Filippo Lippi, Melozzo da Forlì, Veronese, and Il Guercino round out the A-list of top Renaissance and baroque artists represented here. 

But the most famous name here has go to be Raphael, the subject of the Pinacoteca's Room VIII, where you'll find his Coronation of the Virgin (1503) and Madonna of Foligno (1511) surrounded by the Flemish-woven tapestries executed to the master's designs.

All that is just set decoration around the main act. In the center of the room hangs the young Renaissance master's greatest masterpiece, ★★Raphael's Transfiguration (1520).

This 13.5-foot-high study in color and light was discovered almost finished in the artist's studio when he died suddenly at the age of 37, and mourners carried it through the streets of Rome during his funeral procession.

Photo gallery
  • Room XII (17th century), Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo by Petar Milošević)
  • Transfiguration (1518–20) by Raphael, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • St. Jerome (1480) by Leonardo da Vinci, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • The Entombment of Christ, or Deposition, (1602–03) by Caravaggio, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • The Stefaneschi Triptych (1320) by Giotto, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Adam and Eve in the Earthly Paradise (1800–29) by Johann Wenzel Peter, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Madonna and Child (1335) by Bernardo Daddi, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Pope Sixtus IV appoints Bartolomeo Platina prefect of the Vatican Library (1477) by Melozzo da Forlì, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Polyptych with Sts. Antonio Abate, Sebastiano, Cristoforo, Venanzio and Rocco (1464) by Antonio Vivarini, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • St. Margherita by Turino Vanni, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Coronation of the Virgin, or Pala Oddi, (1502–04) by Raphael, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • The Miracle of the Fish (1515), tapestry made from a drawing by Raphael, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Coronation of the Virgin (1441-45) by Filippo Lippi, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Story of St. Nicholas (1437) by Fra Angelico, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Madonna di Monteluce by Giulio Romano and Giovan Francesco Penni, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo by Sailko)
  • Crucifixion of St. Peter (1604–05) by Guido Reni, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Madonna col Bambino by Lorenzo di Credi, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Madonna di Foligno (1511) by Raphael, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Martyrdom of St Processus and St Martinian (1629) by Nicolas Poussin, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • The Martyrdom of St Erasmus (1628) by Nicolas Poussin, Vatican Pinacoteca, Italy (Photo Public Domain)
  • Detached frescoes by Melozzo, from the apse of Rome
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How long does the Vatican Pinacoteca take?

The Pinacoteca should take 45–90 minutes, depending on how much of an art fan you are.

How long do the Vatican Museums take?

Spend all day at the Vatican. Two days if you can swing it.

  • Even on a tight schedule, expect to spend at least 2–3 hours in the museums themselves, plus another hour St. Peter's around the corner. They're worth it.

Warning: The ticket office closes 2 hours before the museum, with the last entry at 4pm.

Book ahead

You can book Vatican entry tickets ahead of time to help avoid the lines, which can last for up to an hour or so in the summer. However, this adds a €4 fee to the already steep admission of €17. Or you can do it online via one of our partners:

Dress code?

Recently, the Vatican (or at least some guards) seems to have decided that you must dress "appropriately" to visit any part of Vatican City—including the museums—and not just St. Peter's, where a dress code has long applied.

Err on the side of caution and make sure you arrive with no bare shoulders, knees or midriffs.

That means: no shorts, no miniskirts, no sleeveless shirts or blouses, no tank-tops. Also, no hats.

(If it's hot and you want to wear a tank top around town that day, just bring a light shawl to cover your shoulders while inside.)

Also, you cannot bring into the museum any bag or backpack larger than 40cm x 35cm x 15cm (roughly 16" x 14" x 6")—there is a cloackroom where you can leave it.

» more on packing the right items for an Italy trip

Admission quirks: When the Vatican is free, closed, crowded, open late, etc.

Vatican Museum free days

The Vatican Museums are free on the last Sunday of each month, when they stay open until 2pm (last entry: 12:30pm). This, however, is no secret, so they are also intensely crowded.

On any other Sunday, however, the Vatican Museum are closed—and if that final Sunday of the month happens falls on a church holiday (see below), they also remain closed.

The Vatican is also free on Sept. 27 (World Tourism Day).

Vatican most crowded on Sun and Wed

The Vatican Museums are most crowded on Sundays (because they're free) and many Wednesdays (because in the morning St. Peter's itself is often closed for the papal audience in the piazza, so everyone who doesn't have tickets walks around the walls to kill time inside the museums, and by afternoon all the audience-goers join them).

Open late on summer Fridays

The Vatican has been experimenting with reopening the museums on Friday evenings spring through fall allowing a limited number of visitors—upon advance booking only—to wander the mooonlit galleries without the crowds.

To book:

Vatican closed on church holidays

The Vatican Museums are closed on all church holidays: Jan. 1, Jan. 6, Feb. 11, Mar. 19, Easter Sunday and Monday, May 1, June 29 (Feast of St. Peter and Paul—major Roman holiday), Aug. 14–15 (everything is closed in Rome on Aug. 15; head to Santa Maria Maggiore for mass with a "snowfall" of rose petals), Nov. 1, Dec. 25 (Merry Christmas!), and Dec. 26 (Santo Stefano—huge in Italy).

Last entry: 4pm

Note that the Vatican Museums close surprisingly early (last entry at 4pm, doors close 6pm).

So see the Museums first, then walk around the walls to visit St. Peter's.

How to get to the Vatican Museums

Cipro-Musei Vaticani is the closest Metro stop (on the A line, about 5 blocks northwest of the entrance; just follow the crowds).

Otherwise, bus 49 stops right in front of the museum entrance (you can catch it from Piazza Cavour, or anywhere along Via Cescenzio, which starts at the northwestern tip of the piazza, near Castel Sant'Angelo).

You can also take bus 490 or 492 to Via Candia (two blocks north of the entrance), or one of many bus lines to Piazza del Risorgimento, tucked into a inside corner of the Vatican walls a short walk east of the musuems entrance: 23, 32, 81,Tram 19, 81, 492, 590, 982, and 990.

Useful Italian phrases

Useful Italian for sightseeing

English (inglese) Italian (italiano) Pro-nun-cee-YAY-shun
Where is?... Dov'é doh-VAY
...the museum il museo eel moo-ZAY-yo
...the church la chiesa lah key-YAY-zah
...the cathedral il duomo [or] la cattedrale eel DUO-mo [or] lah cah-the-DRAH-leh
When is it open? Quando é aperto? KWAN-doh ay ah-PAIR-toh
When does it close? Quando si chiude? KWAN-doh see key-YOU-day
Closed day giorno di riposo JOR-no dee ree-PO-zo
Weekdays (Mon-Sat) feriali fair-ee-YA-lee
Sunday & holidays festivi fe-STEE-vee
ticket biglietto beel-YET-toh
two adults due adulti DOO-way ah-DOOL-tee
one child un bambino oon bahm-BEE-no
one student uno studente OO-noh stu-DENT-ay
one senior un pensionato oon pen-see-yo-NAH-toh

Basic phrases in Italian

English (inglese) Italian (italiano) pro-nun-see-YAY-shun
thank you grazie GRAT-tzee-yay
please per favore pair fa-VOHR-ray
yes si see
no no no
Do you speak English? Parla Inglese? PAR-la een-GLAY-zay
I don't understand Non capisco non ka-PEESK-koh
I'm sorry Mi dispiace mee dees-pee-YAT-chay
How much is it? Quanto costa? KWAN-toh COST-ah
That's too much É troppo ay TROH-po
Good day Buon giorno bwohn JOUR-noh
Good evening Buona sera BWOH-nah SAIR-rah
Good night Buona notte BWOH-nah NOTE-tay
Goodbye Arrivederci ah-ree-vah-DAIR-chee
Excuse me (to get attention) Scusi SKOO-zee
Excuse me (to get past someone) Permesso pair-MEH-so
Where is? Dov'é doh-VAY
...the bathroom il bagno eel BHAN-yoh
...train station la ferroviaria lah fair-o-vee-YAR-ree-yah
to the right à destra ah DEH-strah
to the left à sinistra ah see-NEEST-trah
straight ahead avanti [or] diritto ah-VAHN-tee [or] dee-REE-toh
information informazione in-for-ma-tzee-OH-nay

Days, months, and other calendar items in Italian

English (inglese) Italian (italiano) Pro-nun-cee-YAY-shun
When is it open? Quando é aperto? KWAN-doh ay ah-PAIR-toh
When does it close? Quando si chiude? KWAN-doh see key-YOU-day
At what time... a che ora a kay O-rah
Yesterday ieri ee-YAIR-ee
Today oggi OH-jee
Tomorrow domani doh-MAHN-nee
Day after tomorrow dopo domani DOH-poh doh-MAHN-nee
a day un giorno oon je-YOR-no
Monday Lunedí loo-nay-DEE
Tuesday Martedí mar-tay-DEE
Wednesday Mercoledí mair-coh-lay-DEE
Thursday Giovedí jo-vay-DEE
Friday Venerdí ven-nair-DEE
Saturday Sabato SAH-baa-toh
Sunday Domenica doh-MEN-nee-ka
Mon-Sat Feriali fair-ee-YAHL-ee
Sun & holidays Festivi feh-STEE-vee
Daily Giornaliere joor-nahl-ee-YAIR-eh
a month una mese oon-ah MAY-zay
January gennaio jen-NAI-yo
February febbraio feh-BRI-yo
March marzo MAR-tzoh
April aprile ah-PREEL-ay
May maggio MAH-jee-oh
June giugno JEW-nyoh
July luglio LOO-lyoh
August agosto ah-GO-sto
September settembre set-TEM-bray
October ottobre oh-TOE-bray
November novembre no-VEM-bray
December dicembre de-CHEM-bray

Numbers in Italian

English (inglese) Italian (italiano) Pro-nun-cee-YAY-shun
1 uno OO-no
2 due DOO-way
3 tre tray
4 quattro KWAH-troh
5 cinque CHEEN-kway
6 sei say
7 sette SET-tay
8 otto OH-toh
9 nove NO-vay
10 dieci dee-YAY-chee
11 undici OON-dee-chee
12 dodici DOH-dee-chee
13 tredici TRAY-dee-chee
14 quattordici kwa-TOR-dee-chee
15 quindici KWEEN-dee-chee
16 sedici SAY-dee-chee
17 diciasette dee-chee-ya-SET-tay
18 diciotto dee-CHO-toh
19 diciannove dee-chee-ya-NO-vay
20 venti VENT-tee
21* vent'uno* vent-OO-no
22* venti due* VENT-tee DOO-way
23* venti tre* VENT-tee TRAY
30 trenta TRAYN-tah
40 quaranta kwa-RAHN-tah
50 cinquanta cheen-KWAN-tah
60 sessanta say-SAHN-tah
70 settanta seh-TAHN-tah
80 ottanta oh-TAHN-tah
90 novanta no-VAHN-tah
100 cento CHEN-toh
1,000 mille MEEL-lay
5,000 cinque milla CHEEN-kway MEEL-lah
10,000 dieci milla dee-YAY-chee MEEL-lah

* You can use this formula for all Italian ten-place numbers—so 31 is trent'uno, 32 is trenta due, 33 is trenta tre, etc. Note that—like uno (one), otto (eight) also starts with a vowel—all "-8" numbers are also abbreviated (vent'otto, trent'otto, etc.).